iOS数据恢复:应用程序在iPhone备份中存储数据的位置?

Aidan Fitzpatrick

由 Aidan Fitzpatrick

本文将帮助您在iPhone备份中查找属于特定应用程序的文件。它还可以帮助您更好地了解文件和文件夹在iOS上的排列方式。

Where do apps store data in iPhone backups?
Where do apps store data in iPhone backups?

The simplest approach for recovering files from an iOS backup is to use iPhone Backup Extractor: the free edition will help you find and extract the files you need, as it can do so without you needing to know the detail in this article. If you’d like to do that, you’ll find we’ve got a number of handy guides shown in the top menu of this site, which will guide you through that process.

了解专家模式和iOS域名

When building apps for iOS, authors have a number of decisions to make around how and where they store data. (We’ve written separately on the trade-offs app authors face in deciding where to store user data.) The best way to explore and build familiarity where each app stores its files in iOS is to use the free edition of iPhone Backup Extractor. If you load it up, select a backup in the left-hand navigation menu, and then choose “Expert Mode” from the main part of the screen, you’ll be presented with a list of around 18 folders, likely beginning with “Application Groups”. Strictly speaking, these top-level groupings are known as “Domains”.

许多域仅被应用程序切向使用。例如,“键盘”域可能包含来自第三方键盘的一些数据,但不包含常规应用程序中的数据。

一些域 - 例如“媒体”和“相机胶卷” - 被内置的消息和相机应用程序大量使用。但是,在追踪来自第三方应用程序的数据时,我们最感兴趣的是“应用程序组”和“应用程序”域。

命名空间中有什么?

如果展开“应用程序”域以列出其包含的文件夹,您将看到许多奇怪命名的文件夹。这是一个例子:

  • com.apple.Health
  • com.burbn.instagram
  • com.facebook.Messenger
  • snapchat.picaboo
  • com.spotify.client

Performing iOS data recovery from apps with iPhone Backup Extractor
Performing iOS data recovery from apps with iPhone Backup Extractor

These folders are the primary place for an app to store its data, and they’re usually named using the same format. Back in 1996, Sun Microsystems published a programming language named Java. Java’s documentation laid out a way for third-party software publishers to publish their software without it conflicting with other authors' software. The trick was to take the name of the company’s site -- such as apple.com -- and to reverse it, before adding the name of the product. Thus, Apple’s Health app falls under com.apple.Health, and iPhone Backup Extractor rightly belongs under com.reincubate.iPhoneBackupExtractor. These names became known as “namespaces”, and Sun published a number of additional rules for them.

在设计iOS时,Apple将此作为最佳实践。当然,命名标准只是一个指导原则。正如您在Snapchat( snapchat.picaboo )的示例中所看到的,并非每个人都遵循相同的规则。这不一定是坏事,但是当试图恢复数据时,一致性会很有帮助!

在某些情况下,应用程序的命名空间可以揭示一个有趣的历史怪癖。 Instagram的命名空间是com.burbn.instagram因为,好吧......早在2010年, Instagram就被称为Burbn

流行的iOS应用程序在哪里存储数据?

下表显示了许多流行的iOS应用程序的命名空间。不要忘记,iPhone备份提取器内置了这个列表(它知道不同版本的应用程序和iOS之间的变化),因此它总是知道在协助您恢复iOS数据时的位置。

应用 iOS名称空间
Facebook的 com.facebook.Facebookcom.facebook.Messenger
Instagram的 com.burbn.instagram
Snapchat snapchat.picaboo
消息 Home/Library/SMS
Spotify的 com.spotify.client
Pinterest的 pinterest
Skype的 com.skype.skype
Shazam的 com.shazam.Shazam

如果您想知道特定应用程序存储其数据的位置,并且它不在此列表中,为什么不向我们发送@reincubate ?我们会通知你。 👩🔬

iOS应用程序如何存储数据,以及如何读取数据?

应用程序作者可以自由地以他们喜欢的应用程序格式存储数据。如果在备份中手动搜索数据,iPhone Backup Extractor的用户将倾向于运行三种格式:

  • XML Plists
  • 二进制Plists
  • SQLite数据库

XML和二进制Plist通常都具有“.plist”文件扩展名。但是,许多其他扩展也可以指示文件是Plist,例如“.cookies”。 Plist是“属性列表”的缩写,它们是Apple用于存储简单数据集合的首选文件格式 。 XML Plists通常可以通过眼睛阅读,因为它们以纯文本形式存储,但如果只是简单地查看,二进制Plists通常是不可理解的。

幸运的是,免费版的iPhone Backup Extractor内置了Plist查看器和编辑器:从File菜单中选择“View / Edit Plist”,您将能够检查任何Plist文件的内容。或者,在专家模式下,用户可以右键单击文件并选择“查看为Plist”。

View as Plist in iPhone Backup Extractor
View as Plist in iPhone Backup Extractor

SQLite数据库是您可能期望的:结构化数据的集合。它们通常由“.db”或“.sqlite3”文件扩展名表示。如果没有特殊的编辑器,则无法读取这些文件,但iPhone Backup Extractor具有为您查询这些文件的技术。

每个域包含在iPhone备份中的内容是什么?

iOS backup domain Data found in this domain
Application Groups Data stored here by apps is able to be shared slightly more freely on the device. Many applications will store a small amount of data here, but rarely will you see valuable content.
Application Plugins Apps that store data here usually do so as part of an iOS extension. That may be as a Watch plugin, a third-party keyboard, a widget, a sharing extension, or an Animoji. This domain rarely contains user data.
Applications This is the core domain for apps to store user data on an iPhone. Each app has its own namespace, as described in the “What’s in a namespace?” section above.
Camera Roll The camera roll domain includes all photos, videos and metadata stored on an iOS device. If the device is configured to “Optimise Storage”, and not to store all photos locally, this domain may contain less information than one expects.
Databases Little information is stored here on modern installs of iOS.
Health HealthKit and medical data is stored in the Health domain, along with activity data being shared with a paired Apple Watch.
Home The Home domain is a goldmine of information for many of Apple’s built-in applications, such as Messages, Notes and Calendar.
HomeKit This domain stores a limited amount of information on the state of Apple HomeKit configuration.
Install The Install domain contains metadata to indicate which built-in Apple apps are installed on the iOS device.
Keyboard Language and keyboard configuration is stored in this domain.
Keychain The iOS device’s keychain (a collection of user passwords) is stored here, in a SQLite file.
Managed Preferences This domain contains data around the management of the iOS device. If your device is enrolled in an MDM (mobile device management) program, perhaps by your school or employer, some metadata will be stored here.
Media Many types of media are stored under this domain. For instance, users will find attachments to SMS messages, recordings, and PhotoStream data here.
Root The root domains contains fundamental configuration files for the setup of the iOS device.
System Containers The system containers domain contains limited metadata from the App Store app, and some other iOS processes.
System Preferences This domain contains low-level information on an iOS device’s status. For instance, you can learn about its networking configuration, or about the wi-fi networks or VPNs it has recently connected to.
System Shared Containers Some iOS system processes which can share data across iOS store their data here. It is a good place to start when looking to learn more about Bluetooth activity on a device, for instance.
Wireless The wireless domain contains a rich set of information on iOS’s use of cellular and wi-fi networks, and of its recent IP address assignations.

接下来做什么

为什么不下载iPhone备份提取器,或者阅读有关Reincubate的更多信息以及我们如何帮助全球客户恢复数据?

如果您想了解有关iOS或iPhone备份提取器的更多信息,本网站提供了大量有关充分利用您的数据的指南和文章。我们的支持中心包含许多其他知识库,其中包含常见问题解答。

Aidan Fitzpatrick

由 Aidan Fitzpatrick, last updated

我们曾经帮助过 3,000,000 多人恢复其丢失的 iPhone 数据。 所以我们也能为您排忧解难。

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